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Title: Science enabled by a Moon Village
Author: Ian A. Crawford

A human-robotic "Moon Village" would offer significant scientific opportunities by providing an infrastructure on the lunar surface. An analogy would be the way in which human outposts in Antarctica facilitate research activities across multiple scientific disciplines on that continent. Scientific fields expected to benefit from a Moon Village will include: planetary science, astronomy, astrobiology, life sciences, and fundamental physics. In addition, a Moon Village will help develop the use of lunar resources, which will yield additional longer-term scientific benefits.

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Lava tubes safe enough for Moon base

Natural tunnels known as lava tubes could safely house permanent bases on the Moon, scientists have said.
The underground volcanic structures have previously been proposed as ideal sites for human settlements.

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Building a lunar base with 3D printing

Setting up a lunar base could be made much simpler by using a 3D printer to build it from local materials. Industrial partners including renowned architects Foster + Partners have joined with ESA to test the feasibility of 3D printing using lunar soil.
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Imagine a machine that could build a 2,000 square foot home in under 24 hours. Imagine one that could do that on the surface of the moon?
It may seem unrealistic, but Behrokh Khoshnevis - an engineering professor at the University of Southern California - has developed a way to do just that. With a $500,000 grant from NASA's Innovative Advanced Concepts division, Khoshnevis is retooling a construction system he pioneered 10 years ago that will help scientists establish permanent lunar structures.

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Lunar volcanic tubes

Remnant tubular structures or tunnel-like formations from lunar volcanic flows in the past, which extend a couple of kilometres on the moon's surface, could serve as ideal landing as well as human settlement sites for future missions, including Chandrayaan-II, according to some new findings from India's Chandrayaan-1.
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Building a home near a moon crater or a lunar sea may sound nice, but moon colonists might have a much better chance of survival if they just lived in a hole.
That's the message sent by an international team of scientists who say they've discovered a protected lunar "lava tube" -- a deep, giant hole -- that might be well suited for a moon colony or a lunar base.
The vertical hole, in the volcanic Marius Hills region on the moon's near side, is 213 feet wide and is estimated to be more than 260 feet deep, according to findings published in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.

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Moon's radiation tolerable for explorers

The NASA spacecraft circling the moon on a reconnaissance mission for future astronauts has found that potentially toxic radiation from the sun is tolerable for any new generation of lunar explorers who may return there, scientists report.
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The U.S. space agency, NASA, plans to crash a rocket into a crater on the south pole of the moon on Friday in hopes of detecting water in the debris produced by the impact. An empty rocket will slam into the lunar surface followed by an inspection by the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite or LCROSS, which will later also slam into the moon. If the probe shows the presence of water, it could boost U.S. plans to establish a lunar base. But finding water on the moon is only the first step.

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Moon rock can be processed directly to produce oxygen.
Scientists in Cambridge, UK, have developed a reactor that can make oxygen from Moon rock - a vital technology if plans to create a lunar base are to take off.

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