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Title: Main-belt asteroids in the K2 Uranus field
Author: L. Molnár, A. Pál, K. Sárneczky, R. Szabó, J. Vinkó, Gy. M. Szabó, Cs. Kiss, O. Hanyecz, G. Marton, L. L. Kiss

We present the K2 light curves of a large sample of untargeted Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) detected with the Kepler space telescope. The asteroids were observed within the Uranus superstamp, a relatively large, continuous field with low stellar background designed to cover the planet Uranus and its moons during Campaign 8 of the K2 mission. The superstamp offered the possibility to obtain precise, uninterrupted light curves of a large number of MBAs and thus to determine unambiguous rotation rates for them. We obtained photometry for 608 MBAs, and were able to determine rotation rates for 90 targets, of which 86 had no known values before. In an additional 16 targets we detected incomplete cycles and/or eclipse-like events. We found the median rotation rate, P_rot=9.25 h, to be significantly longer than that of the ground-based observations, indicating that the latter are biased towards shorter rotation rates. Moreover, the ground-based sample also misses a fraction of asteroids with P_rot \approx 24 h, due to the inherent biases of the observations.

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Title: Precise Distances for Main-Belt Asteroids in Only Two Nights
Author: Aren N. Heinze, Stanimir Metchev

We present a method for calculating precise distances to asteroids using only two nights of data from a single location --- far too little for an orbit --- by exploiting the angular reflex motion of the asteroids due to Earth's axial rotation. We refer to this as the rotational reflex velocity method. While the concept is simple and well-known, it has not been previously exploited for surveys of main-belt asteroids. We offer a mathematical development, estimates of the errors of the approximation, and a demonstration using a sample of 197 asteroids observed for two nights with a small, 0.9-meter telescope. This demonstration used digital tracking to enhance detection sensitivity for faint asteroids, but our distance determination works with any detection method. Forty-eight asteroids in our sample had known orbits prior to our observations, and for these we demonstrate a mean fractional error of only 1.6% between the distances we calculate and those given in ephemerides from the Minor Planet Center. In contrast to our two-night results, distance determination by fitting approximate orbits requires observations spanning 7--10 nights. Once an asteroid's distance is known, its absolute magnitude and size (given a statistically-estimated albedo) may immediately be calculated. Our method will therefore greatly enhance the efficiency with which 4-meter and larger telescopes can probe the size distribution of small (e.g. 100 meter) main belt asteroids. This distribution remains poorly known, yet encodes information about the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt --- and hence the history of the Solar System.

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Title: Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-Infrared Albedos
Author: Joseph R. Masiero, T. Grav, A. K. Mainzer, C. R. Nugent, J. M. Bauer, R. Stevenson, S. Sonnett

We present revised near-infrared albedo fits of 2835 Main Belt asteroids observed by WISE/NEOWISE over the course of its fully cryogenic survey in 2010. These fits are derived from reflected-light near-infrared images taken simultaneously with thermal emission measurements, allowing for more accurate measurements of the near-infrared albedos than is possible for visible albedo measurements. As our sample requires reflected light measurements, it undersamples small, low albedo asteroids, as well as those with blue spectral slopes across the wavelengths investigated. We find that the Main Belt separates into three distinct groups of 6%, 16%, and 40% reflectance at 3.4 um. Conversely, the 4.6 um albedo distribution spans the full range of possible values with no clear grouping. Asteroid families show a narrow distribution of 3.4 um albedos within each family that map to one of the three observed groupings, with the (221) Eos family being the sole family associated with the 16% reflectance 3.4 um albedo group. We show that near-infrared albedos derived from simultaneous thermal emission and reflected light measurements are an important indicator of asteroid taxonomy and can identify interesting targets for spectroscopic followup.

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Title: Albedo Properties of Main Belt Asteroids Based on the Infrared All-Sky Survey of the Astronomical Satellite AKARI
Authors: Fumihiko Usui, Toshihiro Kasuga, Sunao Hasegawa, Masateru Ishiguro, Daisuke Kuroda, Thomas G. Mueller, Takafumi Ootsubo, Hideo Matsuhara

We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were catalogued in the Asteroid Catalogue Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the Standard Thermal Model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes. Main belt asteroids, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06 to 3.27 AU. AcuA provides a complete data set of all main belt asteroids brighter than the absolute magnitude of H < 10.3, which corresponds to the diameter of d > 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the main belt asteroids is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite of the albedo transition process like space weathering, the heliocentric distribution of the mean albedo of asteroids in each taxonomic type is nearly flat. The mean albedo of the total, on the other hand, gradually decreases with an increase in semimajor axis. This can be explained by the compositional ratio of taxonomic types; that is, the proportion of dark asteroids such as C- and D-types increases, while that of bright asteroids such as S-type decreases, with increasing heliocentric distance. The heliocentric distributions of X-subclasses: E-, M-, and P-type, which can be divided based on albedo values, are also examined. P-type, which is the major component in X-types, are distributed throughout the main belt regions, and the abundance of P-type increases beyond 3 AU. This distribution is similar to that of C- or D-types.

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Title: The Kilometre-Sized Main Belt Asteroid Population as Revealed by Spitzer
Authors: Erin Lee Ryan, Donald R. Mizuno, Sachindev S. Shenoy, Charles E. Woodward, Sean Carey, Alberto Noriega-Crespo, Kathleen E. Kraemer, Stephan D. Price

Multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope 24 micron data is utilised from the MIPSGAL and Taurus Legacy surveys to detect asteroids based on their relative motion. These infrared detections are matched to known asteroids and rotationally averaged diameters and albedos are derived using the Near Earth Asteroid Model (NEATM) in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulations for 1835 asteroids ranging in size from 0.2 to 143.6 km. A small subsample of these objects was also detected by IRAS or MSX and the single wavelength albedo and diameter fits derived from this data are within 5% of the IRAS and/or MSX derived albedos and diameters demonstrating the robustness of our technique. The mean geometric albedo of the small main belt asteroids in this sample is p_V = 0.138 with a sample standard deviation of 0.105. The albedo distribution of this sample is far more diverse than the IRAS or MSX samples. The cumulative size-frequency distribution of asteroids in the main belt at small diameters is directly derived. Completeness limits of the optical and infrared surveys are discussed.

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