Title: Recurrent Novae - A Review Author: Koji Mukai

In recent years, recurrent nova eruptions are often observed very intensely in wide range of wavelengths from radio to optical to X-rays. Here I present selected highlights from recent multi-wavelength observations. The enigma of T Pyx is at the heart of this paper. While our current understanding of CV and symbiotic star evolution can explain why certain subset of recurrent novae have high accretion rate, that of T Pyx must be greatly elevated compared to the evolutionary mean. At the same time, we have extensive data to be able to estimate how the nova envelope was ejected in T Pyx, and it turns to be a rather complex tale. One suspects that envelope ejection in recurrent and classical novae in general is more complicated than the textbook descriptions. At the end of the review, I will speculate that these two may be connected.

Title: Identifying and Quantifying Recurrent Novae Masquerading as Classical Novae Author: Ashley Pagnotta, Bradley E. Schaefer

Recurrent novae (RNe) are cataclysmic variables with two or more nova eruptions within a century. Classical novae (CNe) are similar systems with only one such eruption. Many of the so-called 'CNe' are actually RNe for which only one eruption has been discovered. Since RNe are candidate Type Ia supernova progenitors, it is important to know whether there are enough in our galaxy to provide the supernova rate, and therefore to know how many RNe are masquerading as CNe. To quantify this, we collected all available information on the light curves and spectra of a Galactic, time-limited sample of 237 CNe and the 10 known RNe, as well as exhaustive discovery efficiency records. We recognise RNe as having (a) outburst amplitude smaller than 14.5 - 4.5 * log(t_3), (b) orbital period >0.6 days, (c) infrared colors of J-H > 0.7 mag and H-K > 0.1 mag, (d) FWHM of H-alpha > 2000 km/s, (e) high excitation lines, such as Fe X or He II near peak, (f) eruption light curves with a plateau, and (g) white dwarf mass greater than 1.2 M_solar. Using these criteria, we identify V1721 Aql, DE Cir, CP Cru, KT Eri, V838 Her, V2672 Oph, V4160 Sgr, V4643 Sgr, V4739 Sgr, and V477 Sct as strong RN candidates. We evaluate the RN fraction amongst the known CNe using three methods to get 24% +/- 4%, 12% +/- 3%, and 35% +/- 3%. With roughly a quarter of the 394 known Galactic novae actually being RNe, there should be approximately a hundred such systems masquerading as CNe.

Title: Comprehensive Photometric Histories of All Known Galactic Recurrent Novae Authors: Bradley E. Schaefer (Louisiana State University)

I collect virtually all photometry of the ten known galactic recurrent novae (RNe) and their 37 known eruptions. This consists of my modern measures of nearly all archival plates (providing the only data for half of 37 known eruptions), my own 10,000 CCD magnitudes from 1987 to present (providing virtually all of the magnitudes in quiescence for seven RNe), over 140,000 visual magnitude estimates recorded by amateur astronomers (who discovered half the known eruptions), and the small scattering of magnitudes from all the literature. From this, I produce various uniform products; (1) BVRIJHK comparison star magnitudes and BV comparison star sequences to cover the entire range of eruption, (2) complete light curves for all eruptions, (3) best fit B and V light curve templates, (4) orbital periods for all-but-one RN, (5) exhaustive searches for all missed eruptions, (6) measured discovery efficiencies since 1890, (7) true recurrence time scales, (8) predicted next eruption dates, (9) variations on time scales of minutes, hours, days, months, years, decades, and century, (10) uniform distances and extinctions to all RNe, (11) BV colours at peak and UBVRIJHK colours at minimum all with extinction corrections, and (12) the spectral energy distributions over UBVRIJHK. Highlights of this work include the discoveries of one new RN, six previously-undiscovered eruptions, and the discovery of the orbital periods for half the RNe. The goal of this work is to provide uniform demographics for answering questions like the `What is the death rate of RNe in our galaxy?' and `Are the white dwarfs gaining or losing mass over each eruption cycle?'. An important use of this work is for the question of whether RNe can be the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.